No, England Did NOT Invent Football (Soccer) As We Know It

A soccer official claims that the game has been "stolen" from England. Here's why that argument is flawed.

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Phil Noble / Reuters

Manchester United's Wayne Rooney (L) challenges Fulham's Brede Hangeland during their English Premier League soccer match at Old Trafford in Manchester, northern England, March 26, 2012.

In a performance rendered all the more tragicomic by his accompanying rant about the availability of alcohol in Qatar and his unplanned plunge into a decorative pool, Premier League chairman Sir Dave Richards two weeks ago insisted that England had been robbed. “England gave the world football,” Richards complained at a sports security conference in Qatar. “For 50 years we owned the game … We were the governance of the game. We wrote the rules, designed the pitches and everything else. Then, 50 years later, some guy came along and said: ‘You’re liars,’ and they actually stole it. It was called FIFA.” (FIFA is the game’s global governing body.)

Well, yes, and no.

England invented a game of running around kicking a ball in the mid-19th century (although the Chinese claim to have played a version centuries earlier). They called it “football,” not because the ball is played with the feet, but because the game is played on foot rather on horseback. The term “soccer,” more commonly used in America now, was old English slang based on shortening “Assoc.,” a reference to the game’s formal name, Association Football (as distinct from Rugby Football). The point, however, is that the game first played in Sheffield in the mid-19th century — and throughout England for many decades hence — bears little resemblance to football as we know it today. And England, sad to say, has spent most of the past century trying, mostly in vain, to catch up. (Most of the top players and coaches in Sir Dave’s English Premier League are not, it should be noted, actually English.)

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If the pinnacle of football civilization today is Barcelona FC — whose intricate passing, close control and off-the-ball movement has made them not only the most formidable team in the world, but also the foundation of the Spanish national team that currently holds the World Cup — the English game of the of 19th and early 20th century was cro-magnon by comparison.

Back then, a player would run with the ball towards the opposing goal and his teammates would run alongside and behind him, hoping to pick up the loose ball if their man was tackled — after which, they’d run with the ball with their teammates around them, or else the opposition would do the same in the other direction. (You know, rather like 4-year-olds do when they’re first learning the game.) The idea of moving the ball towards the opponent’s goal by passing it from player to player was invented in Scotland (which, if you know your football geography, is a different country) in the early 20th century. Curiously enough, although entirely unrelated, six of the coaches in the English Premier League today are Scottish, more than from any other country (just four are English).

Scottish coaches took their style to Central Europe in the 1920s, creating the foundation for the legendary prewar Austrian national team, whose star forward, Matthias Sindelar, may have been the first “false 9,” wearing the center-forward’s number but drifting deep in search of the ball. These players ghost across the forward line in a way that made life impossible for defenders accustomed the more rigid formations: today, the role is exemplified by Barcelona’s Lionel Messi or Manchester United’s Wayne Rooney. That same interwar Scottish-influenced game in Central Europe laid the foundation for the “Magnificent Magyars,” the Hungarian national team led by the genius Ferenc Puskas, whose 6-3 thrashing of England at Wembley in 1953 (with the new “false 9,” Sandor Hidegkuti, scoring a hat trick) showed the Brits just how far they’d fallen behind the top teams in the global game. Sure, England won the World Cup on home soil in 1966, but that tournament win was a unique exception in the history of international football, which had England fans in 1996 singing of “30 years of hurt,” which would now of course be 46 years of hurt.

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The era of Brazilian dominance that began with Garrincha, Vava and the precocious teenager Pele destroying all comers at the 1958 World Cup owes a significant debt to Bela Guttman, an itinerant Hungarian-Jewish coach (whose career as a player included a brief spell with Brooklyn Wanderers in New York City). Guttman took the Austro-Hungarian game and transplanted it, coaching some of the world’s best teams, like Brazil; he also had influential spells coaching in Italy and Portugal.

Even the current Barca game so dominant in Europe and at the World Cup is not entirely indigenous. It is a product, in fact, of the influence of the Dutch “Total Football” of the early 1970s — the emphasis on quick one-touch passing, movement and positional flexibility that made the Netherlands the outstanding team of both the 1974 and 1978 World Cups, even though they won neither. (Curiously, the “Magnificent Magyars” had also been by far the outstanding team of the 1954 World Cup, but lost the final to a fitter and better-drilled German side.)

Rinus Michels, coach of that 1974 Dutch team, had actually arrived at Barcelona in 1972, bringing with him the philosophy of Amsterdam’s legendary Ajax football club. Critical to the Dutch game is the belief in instilling it in youngsters before puberty in the world-famous Ajax academy, which for decades was to football what Hogwarts is to wizardry. Michels was joined at Barcelona by Johan Cruyff, the most sublimely gifted footballer the world had seen since Pele. Cruyff’s number 14 became a universal icon among footballers for playmaking game intelligence. Excelling there as a player, Cruyff later coached Barca himself (one of four Dutchmen to do so after Michels), and remains an influential figure on the club’s board. And loads of his countrymen have also played at Camp Nou — indeed, if Barca today doesn’t have any Dutch players has only one Dutch player in a fringe role in its squad, that’s because it has so successfully implemented the Ajax “grow your own” model, with the core of its current team having come through its own academy, La Masia, which was modeled on the Dutch one.

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Cross fertilization is a staple of a game that has become steadily globalized in recent decades. Even England’s style of play and technical abilities have been substantially improved by the presence of so many foreign players and coaches in their top league, and they’re unlikely to be humiliated by any team as they were by the Magyars in ’53. Then again, the global dissemination of basic tactics and organization means that, these days, even minnows like Trinidad or New Zealand can go to a World Cup and avoid humiliation. England is still struggling to mimic successful playing styles in a game it claims to have invented. It has had two foreigners coaching its national team in the past decade, to no avail.

Now, it plans to give the job back to an Englishman. But the real challenge in teaching England to play top-tier competitive football doesn’t lie simply in coaching the national team; it lies in the emphasis on technique in coaching England’s 6-year-olds; in teaching the 9-year-olds to pass and move in an evolving geometry that keeps the ball away from opponents; in teaching the 12-year-olds to look up and see the whole pitch, and their teammates and opponents on it, through the eyes of a coach, and so on. In other words, to import “foreign” virtues at the grassroots, as Barcelona did in the 1970s.

To suggest football was somehow “stolen” from England is to imply that Mozart owes royalties to the crude percussionists of the cro-magnon era. Better to figure what England could “borrow” from modern football, if it is to become internationally competitive any time soon.

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Aberdeen nets football invention Aberdeen and Scotland could claim to be the home of football

A book published in the 17th century suggests the modern game of football may have been invented in Aberdeen.

The book Vocabula was written by city teacher David Wedderburn in 1633, more than 200 years before the Football Association (FA) was formed in England.

The "amazing discovery" is written in Latin and describes playing a match and passing the ball.

A 1711 edition was stored at the National Library of Scotland (NLS) and is now on display in Germany.

Mr Wedderburn wrote: "Let's pick sides. Those who are on the outside, come over here. Kick off, so that we can begin the match...Pass it here."

'Fantastic claim'

Richard McBrearty, curator of the Scottish Football Museum, said: "The book is the first evidence we have come across of a passing game with goalkeepers and players passing the ball to score goals."

It is generally believed that the modern game has its origins in disorganised and spontaneous "mob football", he said.

And that English public schools, such as Eton and Harrow, "civilised" the game by drawing up rules that encouraged players to kick the ball and forbid them from carrying it.

However, McBrearty said Wedderburn's book suggested that while England was pursuing a "dribbling game" in the mid 1800s, Scotland was already playing a much more structured game with team formations and passing.

The influence of this book is quite tremendous - it rewrites part of football history
Professor Wulf Koepke
Museum fur Volkerkund

"The other interesting thing is that the FA was not formed until 1863," he continued.

"In the first FA rule book there is no mention of goalkeepers and the game is based more on a rugby-type structure, where players could not pass the ball forward.

"Scotland has a fantastic claim to have developed the modern game." he said.

"It is frankly an amazing discovery and one which is hard to dispute."

Mr McBrearty said further research by the Scottish Football Museum had shown that many of the first Football Association clubs comprised of Scottish players.

These players, with their superior technique, were known as the "Scottish professors", he said.

The book is on display at the Museum fur Volkerkunde in Hamburg as part of a World Cup football exhibition.

Professor Wulf Koepke of the Museum fur Volkerkunde said: "The influence of this book is quite tremendous - it rewrites part of football history."


What a rediculous article. Of course, as with anything that has ever existed, football has changed and evolved over time. If you compare anything today to over 150 years ago it will have changed vastly. Does this mean Alexander Graham Bell didn't invent the telephone?


This writer is a aweful, he can't even do his job properly. But then that's like more writers I guess. He talks about pointless statistics which will throw his readers; talking about irrelevant things, things that have nothing to do with the creation of the game. It's hilarious. Kicking a ball or any object is clearly something that's been around forever. It still doesn't change the fact that the game football was created in England. The game has since developed with the input from not just England or the UK but from many other countries, it still does not change the fact that England invented the game. Plus everything new to the game must be accepted from the majority of members who say what goes and doesn't in Football, which includes the English FA. Once the head of football. As we know it's now FIFA. However, I think I say this for everyone that FIFA is currently ran by a complete idiot! Fact is England invented the game like most Global Sports. This is a fact!


Football, like nearly all other 'global sports' was invented in Britain. If you Americans want to write your own made up version of history go for it (were used to it anyway)


@walshy You're right, its a shame such a great game has to be associated with something as boring as soccer.


Football was birthed and developed in England. That is a fact. Is it a great footballing nation at current? No, although it certainly isn't a bad one. It should also be mentioned that England today boasts the most competitive league in the world in the English Premier League, and it keeps on getting tougher for everyone involved. What other league has 6 teams all gunning for the title, each with a genuine chance!?



The English did NOT invent football, they codified association football.  However, what is beyond argument is that, Scotland created the passing running game which revolutionised the game. No amount of English denial or petty resentment can change that fact


Keith Hendry: If you are going to argue about Scotland inventing the refined version of the beautiful game, I may remind you that several nations were playing some form of running ball game many moons before that. The real truth is that the game has been developed over centuries and it is continuing to develop thanks to global input. I think several nations (Brazil springs to mind as an example) have improved the game and made it their own. Like all good things, it is the sum total of combined efforts. So when you talk about English denial and petty resentment, it all sounds a bit too simple, hollow and nationalistic. And when it comes down to which nation plays it best these days, it most certainly isn't Scotland or England. Better to be more magnanimous: after all it's only a game that we are not going to win anytime soon.


@addriftofficial @walshy then why are you not good at it still. You invented football and you've only won the CUP once. Its been almost 2 decades now and you'v had nothing to show. All other countries that have won the world cup have done so more than once except Spain. You telling me you can compare yourself with Brazil and other great football countries. You invented it doesn't mean you good enough to control it. And all this stuff about not able to drink alcohol is rubbish. Why would you want to dispute about the availability of something that would harm your body and probably make you not sane. Football is supposed to be something that brings the world together and not claiming of title cos of greediness. So you telling me all toothbrush should be produced in China because it was invented there. Rubbish.


@sot @addriftofficial @walshy England have actually won the World Cup three times if you count the two competitions that were run before FIFA got their corrupt hands on it. As for who invented the game, this is a no brainer. If you are counting the Chinese from prehistory or Japanese monks, then you may as well say that the Neanderthals invented the game by kicking skulls or something similar about. 

Football has been on the statute books in England since the thirteenth century and there are historical references to it since Anglo-Saxon times. There were several types of the game played throughout the ages including the mob games and the field games. Schools started playing it (in 1823 during one of these games, Mr Webb-Ellis famously caught the ball, ran with it and Rugby was invented). In the nineteenth century, in order that teams from different parts of the country could play each other, Cambridge University codified the rules of Association football (which was shortened to the word Soccer by Charles Wreford Brown at Charterhouse School) taking parts from each game. Thus the modern game was born. The oldest teams in the world, the oldest grounds in the world and the oldest competitions in the world are all from England. Anyone, including the writer of this revisionist piece, who says anything else is simply deluding themselves.


@addriftofficial  Apparently Football goes back to at least 2500BC. But being English I can ignore that too. England invented football :)


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